Flights of Fancy
How birds (and bird-watchers) compute the behavior of a flock on the wing
A thousand starlings rose in unison from trees along a riverbank. The ascending cloud of birds took the form of a teardrop, then transformed itself into a butterfly, then a twisting vortex narrowing to a sinuous, quivering rope of birds stretched across the twilight sky. The flock had all the synchronized precision of a marching band, but none of the rigid, rank-and-file geometry. Instead the movements were smooth, fluid, organic, as if the flock were a single organism rather than a collection of individuals. The show went on for 10 minutes, then the birds swooped low over my head with a breathy rush of wing beats and returned to the same row of trees—only to rise again moments later for another performance.
The graceful aerial displays of starlings and other flocking birds have long inspired admiration and wonder. Lately they have also inspired serious work in mathematics, computer science, physics and biology. A theoretical framework for explaining the behavior of tightly clustered flocks emerged in the 1980s. The key idea, which came from computer simulations, is that purely local interactions between nearby birds are enough to hold the group together. Similar mechanisms are thought to operate in schools of fish, herds of grazing animals, swarms of insects and even crowds of people.
More recent work builds on this foundation. In particular, an ambitious program of stereoscopic photography and digital image processing has made it possible to reconstruct the positions and velocities of individual birds within large flocks. The new data suggest some refinements to the algorithms that are thought to govern the birds’ movements. The three-dimensional reconstructions have also brought some surprises about the overall shape and structure of the flocks, and show that the birds’ movements are even more delicately coordinated than casual observation would suggest.