The Post-OOP Paradigm
The Quality Without a Name
Another new programming methodology draws its inspiration from an unexpected quarter. Although the term "computer architecture" goes back to the dawn of the industry, it was nonetheless a surprise when a band of software designers became disciples of a bricks-and-steel architect, Christopher Alexander. Even Alexander was surprised.
Alexander is known for the enigmatic thesis that well-designed buildings and towns must have "the quality without a name." He explains: "The fact that this quality cannot be named does not mean that it is vague or imprecise. It is impossible to name because it is unerringly precise." Does that answer your question?
Even if the quality had a name, it's not clear how one would turn it into a prescription for building good houses—or good software. Fortunately, Alexander is more explicit elsewhere in his writings. He urges architects to exploit recurrent patterns observed in both problems and solutions. For the pattern of events labeled "watching the world go by," a good solution is probably going to look something like a front porch. Taken over into the world of software, this approach leads to a catalogue of design patterns for solving specific, recurring problems in object-oriented programming. For example, a pattern named Bridge deals with the problem of setting up communications between two objects that may not know of each other's existence at the time a program is written. A pattern named Composite handles the situation where a single object and a collection of multiple objects have to be given the same status, as is often the case with files and directories of files.
Over the past 10 years a sizable community has grown up around the pattern idea. There are dozens of books, web sites and an annual conference called Pattern Languages of Programming, or PLoP. Compared with earlier reform movements in computing, the pattern community sounds a little unfocused and New Age. Whereas structured programming was founded on a proof that three specific structures suffice to express all algorithms, there is nothing resembling such a proof to justify the selection of ideas included in catalogues of design patterns. As a matter of fact, the whole idea of proofs seems to be out of favor in the pattern community.
Software Jeremiahs usually preach that programming should be an engineering profession, guided by standards analogous to building codes, or else it should be a branch of applied mathematics, with programs constructed like mathematical proofs. The pattern movement rejects both of these ideals and suggests instead that programmers are like carpenters or stonemasons—stewards of a body of knowledge gained by experience and passed along by tradition and apprenticeship. This is a movement of practitioners, not academics. Pattern advocates express particular contempt for the notion that programming might someday be taken over entirely by the computer. Automating a craft, they argue, is not only infeasible but also undesirable.
The rhetoric of the pattern movement may sound like the ranting of a fringe group, but pattern methods have been adopted in several large organizations producing large—and successful—software systems. (When you make a phone call, you may well be relying on the work of programmers seeking out the quality without a name.) Moreover, beyond the rhetoric, the writings of the software-patterns community can be quite down-to-earth and pragmatic.
If the pattern community is on the radical fringe, how far out is extreme programming (or, as it is sometimes spelled, eXtreme programming)? For the leaders of this movement, the issue is not so much the nature of the software itself but the way programming projects are organized and managed. They want to peel away layers of bureaucracy and jettison most of the stages of analysis, planning, testing, review and documentation that slow down software development. Just let programmers program! The recommended protocol is to work in pairs, two programmers huddling over a single keyboard, checking their own work as they go along. Is it a fad? A cult? Although the name may evoke a culture of body piercing and bungee jumping, extreme programming seems to have gained a foothold among the pinstriped suits. The first major project completed under the method was a payroll system for a transnational automobile manufacturer.