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Accidental Algorithms

A strange new family of algorithms probes the boundary between easy and hard problems

Brian Hayes

The Coffee-Break Criterion

For most of us, the boundary between fast and slow computations is clearly marked: A computation is slow if it's not finished when you come back from a coffee break. Computer science formalizes this definition in terms of polynomial-time and exponential-time algorithms.

The%20running%20time%20of%20an%20algorithmClick to Enlarge ImageSuppose you are running a computer program whose input is a list of n numbers. The program might be sorting the numbers, or finding their greatest common divisor, or generating permutations of them. No matter what the task, the running time of the program will likely depend in some way on n, the length of the list (or, more precisely, on the total number of bits needed to represent the numbers). Perhaps the time needed to process n items grows as n 2. Thus as n increases from 10 to 20 to 30, the running time rises from 100 to 400 to 900. Now consider a program whose running time is equal to 2 n . In this case, as the size of the input grows from 10 to 20 to 30, the running time leaps from a thousand to a million to a billion. You're going to be drinking a lot of coffee.

The function n 2 is an example of a polynomial; 2 n denotes an exponential. The distinction between these categories of functions marks the great divide of computational complexity theory. Roughly speaking, polynomial algorithms are fast and efficient; exponential algorithms are too slow to bother with. To speak a little less roughly: When n becomes large enough, any polynomial-time program is faster than any exponential-time program.

So much for the classification of algorithms. What about classifying the problems that the algorithms are supposed to solve? For any given problem, there might be many different algorithms, some faster than others. The custom is to rate a problem according to the worst-case performance of the best algorithm. The class known as P includes all problems that have at least one polynomial-time algorithm. The algorithm has to give the right answer and has to run in polynomial time on every instance of the problem.

Classifying problems for which we don't know a polynomial-time algorithm is where it gets tricky. In the first place, there are some problems that require exponential running time for reasons that aren't very interesting. Think about a program to generate all subsets of a set of n items; the computation is easy, but because there are 2 n subsets, just writing down the answer will take an exponential amount of time. To avoid such issues, complexity theory focuses on problems with short answers. Decision problems ask a yes-or-no question ("Does the graph have a Hamiltonian circuit?"). There are also counting problems ("How many Hamiltonian circuits does the graph have?"). Problems of these kinds might conceivably have a polynomial-time solution, and we know that some of them do. The big question is whether all of them do. If not, what distinguishes the easy problems from the hard ones?

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