Graph Theory in Practice: Part I
People Who Know People
Some of the most interesting large graphs are those in which we are the vertices. These "social graphs" are associated with the phrase "six degrees of separation," popularized by a 1990 play of that title and a later film, both written by John Guare. The idea is that the acquaintanceship graph connecting the entire human population has a diameter of six or less. Guare attributes this notion to Guglielmo Marconi, who supposedly said that wireless telegraphy would so contract the world that any two people could be connected by a chain of 5.83 intermediaries. Did Marconi really make such a statement? I have been unable to find any evidence. (And the two decimal places of precision do nothing to increase my faith in the number's authenticity).
Even if Marconi did have ideas about the acquaintanceship graph, they were unknown to those who later took up the subject. In the 1950s and 60s Anatol Rapoport based a theory of social networks on the idea of random graphs. He showed that any bias in the random placement of edges tends to reduce the overall connectivity of the graph and increases its diameter. Thus social structures that bring people together in clusters have the side effect of pushing the clusters farther apart. On the basis of this mathematical result, the sociologist M. S. Granovetter argued that what holds a society together are not the strong ties within clusters but the weak ones between people who span two or more communities.
Also in the 1950s, Ithiel de Sola Pool and Manfred Kochen tried to estimate the average degree of the vertices in the acquaintanceship graph and guessed that the order of magnitude is 1,000. This high density of interpersonal contacts led them to conjecture that anyone in the U.S. "can presumably be linked to another person chosen at random by two or three intermediaries on the average, and almost with certainty by four."
This "small-world hypothesis" was put to the test a decade later in a famous experiment by Stanley Milgram. Packets addressed to an individual in the Boston area were given to volunteers in Nebraska and Kansas. Each volunteer was directed to pass the packet along to any personal acquaintance who might get it closer to its intended recipient. Instructions within the packet asked each person who received it to follow the same procedure. For the packets that made it all the way to their destination, the mean number of intermediary nodes was 5.5.
Milgram's experiment was ingenious, and yet it did not quite establish that everyone on the planet is within six handshakes of everyone else. In the first place, the reported path length of 5.5 nodes was an average, not a maximum. (The range was from 3 to 10.) Two-thirds of the packets were never delivered at all. Furthermore, although Nebraska and Kansas may seem like the ends of the earth from Massachusetts, the global acquaintanceship graph probably has a few backwaters even more remote. And if Milgram's result is not an upper bound on the diameter of the graph, neither is it a lower one: There is no reason to believe that all the participants in the study found the shortest possible route.
Certain subgraphs of the acquaintanceship graph have been explored more thoroughly. The prototype is the "collaboration graph" centered on Paul Erdos, who was the most prolific mathematician ever (Euler was second). In this graph distance from Erdos's node is termed the Erdos number. Erdos himself has an Erdos number of 0. All those who co-authored a paper with him have Erdos number 1. Those who did not write a joint paper with Erdos but who are co-authors of a co-author have Erdos number 2, and so on. The graph built up in this way, by adding concentric layers of co-authors, can be viewed as a component of a larger graph with a node for every contributor to the literature of science. Although the graph as a whole cannot be connected—if only because of "soloists" who never collaborate with anyone—the connected component centered on Erdos is thought to encompass almost all active scientists and to have a small diameter.
Another collaboration graph has movie actors instead of scientists at the vertices, with the central role given to Kevin Bacon. Because feature films are a smaller universe than scientific publications, the structure of this "Hollywood graph" can been determined in greater detail. If the records of the Internet Movie Database can be taken as complete and definitive, then the Hollywood graph has 355,848 vertices, representing actors who have appeared in 170,479 films.
Brett C. Tjaden and Glenn Wasson of the University of Virginia maintain a Web site (The Oracle of Bacon) that tabulates Bacon numbers. Because the entire graph is known, there is no need to speculate about whether or not it is connected or what its diameter might be. The questions can be answered directly. The Hollywood graph includes exactly one person with Bacon number 0 (that one's easy to guess); there are 1,433 with Bacon number 1; another 96,828 have Bacon number 2, and 208,692 occupy nodes at Bacon number 3. But because the number of actors is finite, the rings around Bacon cannot continue expanding. At Bacon number 4 there are 46,019 actors, then 2,556 at distance 5, and 252 at Bacon number 6. Finally there are just 65 actors who require seven intermediaries to be connected to Kevin Bacon, and two exceptionally obscure individuals whose Bacon number is 8. (Finding any actor in tiers 7 or 8 will earn you a place in the Oracle's hall of fame.)
A new attempt to construct a major piece of the global acquaintanceship graph is now under way at a Web site called sixdegrees.com, founded by Andrew Weinreich. Here you are invited to fill out a form listing the e-mail addresses of your friends, who will be invited to create database entries of their own. Thus, you should be able to explore the social graph as seen from your own position in it—everyone gets a chance to be Kevin Bacon or Paul Erdos. When I last checked, sixdegrees.com had 2,846,129 members. Statistics on the structure of the evolving graph have not been published, but a review by Janelle Brown in Salon magazine offers some clues. Brown reports: "I, for example, have fourteen contacts in my inner circle, 169 in my second degree, 825 in my third, 3,279 in my fourth, 10,367 in my fifth and 26,075 in my sixth." The fact that these numbers continue increasing and have not begun to approach the total size of the graph suggests that a giant connected component has not yet emerged at sixdegrees.com.
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