Modern crime often leaves an electronic trail. Finding and preserving that evidence requires careful methods as well as technical skill
For all its power, digital forensics faces stark challenges that are likely to grow in the coming years. Today’s computers have on average 1,000 times more storage but are only 100 times faster than the high-end workstations of the early 1990s, so there is less computing power available to process each byte of memory.
The number of cases in which digital evidence is collected is rising far faster than the number of forensic investigators available to do the examinations. And police now realize that digital evidence can be used to solve crimes—that is, as part of the investigation process—whereas in the past it was mainly a tool for assisting in convictions.
Cell phones may be equipped with “self-destruct” applications that wipe their data if they receive a particular text, so it is now standard practice to store phones in a shielded metal box, called a Faraday cage, which blocks radio waves. But many cell phones will “forget” their stored memory if left off for too long, so the Faraday cages must be equipped with power strips and cell phone chargers. Because many low-end cell phones have proprietary plugs, police must seize chargers as well. However, some phones will wipe their data if they can’t call home, whereas others will encrypt their data with algorithms too powerful for law enforcement to decipher.
Further complicating the investigator’s job is the emergence of cloud computing and other technologies for storing data on the Internet. As a result of the cloud, there is no way to ensure that a seized cell phone actually holds the suspect’s data—the phone might simply be a tool for accessing a remote server. A law enforcement professional who is authorized to search a device may not have legal authority to use information on that device to access remotely stored data. Worse still, the data might be deleted in the meantime by one of the suspect’s collaborators.
Despite its technical sophistication and reliance on the minutiae of digital systems, the single biggest challenge facing digital forensics practice today has a decidedly human dimension: the lack of qualified people to serve as researchers and practitioners. Not merely the result of the general tech shortage, the very nature of digital forensics makes staffing significantly harder than in other disciplines. Because the field’s mission is to understand any data that might be stored, we need individuals who have knowledge of both current and past computer systems, applications, and data formats. We need generalists in a technological society that increasingly rewards experts and specialization.
One way to address this training problem is to look for opportunities to break down forensic problems into modular pieces so that experts in related fields can make meaningful contributions. I believe that another approach is to show how the underlying principles and current tools of digital forensics can be widely applied throughout our society. This relevancy should increase research into tools and hopefully expand the user base of the software.
Many of the tools of digital forensics can be used for privacy auditing. Instead of finding personal information that might be relevant to a case, businesses and individuals can use the tools to look for the inappropriate presence of personal information left behind because of bugs or oversight. Likewise, individuals can use programs such as file carvers to recover photographs that have been accidentally deleted from digital cameras.
More generally, as our cars, street signs, communication systems, electrical networks, buildings, and even social interactions are increasingly computerized, digital forensics is likely to be one of the only ways of understanding these systems when they misbehave—or when they are subverted.
Without developing fundamentally new tools and capabilities, forensics experts will face increasing difficulty and cost along with ever-expanding data size and system complexity. Thus today’s digital detectives are in an arms race not just with criminals, but also with the developers of tomorrow’s computer systems.