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The Complex Call of the Carolina Chickadee

What can the chick-a-dee call teach us about communication and language?

Todd Freeberg, Jeffrey Lucas, Indrikis Krams


We thank Harriet Bowden, Sheri Browing, Gordon Burghardt, Esteban Fernandez-Juricic, Megan Gall, Jessica Owens, Kelly Ronald and Luke Tyrell for helpful comments on earlier drafts of this article. Todd Freeberg thanks the J. William Fulbright Scholarship Board for a teaching award in Latvia in the spring of 2012, which helped make the writing and preparation of this article possible.


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