Phoenix on Mars
The latest successful landing craft has made new discoveries about water on the red planet
Since we received our first close-up photographs of Mars, when Mariner 4 flew by it in 1965, our nearest neighbor has appeared to be much like our own planet in many ways, but also distinctly different. Mars is about half the size and has about 40 percent of the gravity of Earth, it’s at least 55 million kilometers away (depending on the two planets’ positions in their orbits), and it currently takes at least nine months to get there. But like Earth, Mars has polar ice caps, clouds in its atmosphere and seasonal weather patterns. It has familiar geological features, such as volcanoes and canyons. However, although there are signs of floods in the ancient past, Mars is now apparently a barren world.
What is the history of liquid water on Mars? Has water ever been stable on its surface (or in its near subsurface) for a geologically significant period of time? Was Mars warm and wet in ancient times? If so, what triggered the apparent change in climate? And could primitive terrestrial life-forms evolve in the present or past Martian environment? These are the main questions that have driven the exploration of Mars since the mid-1960s. In addition, if humans ever tried to travel to, or even set up an outpost on, another planet, Mars would likely be the first choice, so there’s even more reason to learn as much as possible about our neighboring planet.
Missions to Mars have been a mix of failure and success. The first working spacecraft to land on the planet’s surface were Viking 1 and 2 in the mid-1970s, and they returned the first color images of the planet. They also sent back data long past their planned mission lifetime, until 1982 and 1980, respectively. Their experiments on Martian soil, looking for signs of microscopic life, were inconclusive. More than a decade later, a mission to send an orbiter to Mars ended in failure, but another, Mars Global Surveyor, arrived in 1997 and returned data until October 2006. Also in 1997, the Mars Pathfinder lander, with its Sojourner rover, landed safely and was remarkably successful.
In 1999 the Mars Climate Orbiter and the Mars Polar Lander both failed and were lost upon arrival at Mars. The Mars Surveyor 2001 mission, including an orbiter, a lander and a rover, was canceled in 2000, but its orbiter was repurposed and successfully launched as the 2001 Mars Odyssey orbiter. This orbiter has also relayed information back from the twin rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, which landed in 2004. The European Space Agency (ESA) saw the safe arrival of its orbiter, Mars Express, in 2003, although the lander was lost on deployment. The Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter safely joined Mars’s orbit in 2006, providing the highest camera resolution yet.
However, after the Mars Polar Lander crashed and the Mars Surveyor 2001 mission was canceled in 2000, there seemed to be no hope for a new mission to the Martian arctic regions. The situation changed early in 2002 when the Mars Odyssey orbiter discovered large amounts of near-surface hydrogen in exactly these regions. The hydrogen reservoir was interpreted as water ice—less than a meter below the surface. It was argued that such arctic water ice might contain the long-searched for (and long-missed) organic compounds that could signify the presence of life, either past or present.
These discoveries led a group, headed by Peter H. Smith of the University of Arizona, to develop a mission that would build on previous designs and use the already completed, but unused, Mars Surveyor lander. Thus was born the Phoenix Mars Lander, named because like the mythical bird, it had been resurrected from the ashes of its predecessors. The rocket that carried Phoenix was launched on August 4, 2007, and the spacecraft landed safely on May 25, 2008.