In order to move beyond the limits of Reductionism discussed in the article the Life Sciences have increasingly adopted Model Free Methods - a term coined by pioneering geneticist Lionel S. Penrose in 1935. More about this topic, a zoo of Model Free Methods and a worked through example are available in the talk "Science Beyond Reductionism" at http://videos.syntience.com . It starts slowly; if in a hurry, skip the first few minutes.
The failure of Artificial Intelligence to date can be attributed to the fact that AI was born as a subdiscipline of computer science which is totally dominated by Reductionist approaches. It should, from the beginning, have been a life science and used a different strategy; this is discussed in the video "A New Direction in AI Research" at the same site.
posted by Monica Anderson
September 8, 2011
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