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Splish Splash: Excerpts from Fresh Water, The Ocean, Our Future and Encyclopedia of Fishes

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A hydraulic jump can be spectacular. When, at the foot of a waterfall or below a boulder, you see a standing wave that rears up as a foaming breaker with a tumbling, undulating crest that seems forever poised to rush upstream without actually doing so, you are looking at a hydraulic jump . . . . The current within the standing wave [makes] . . . a good takeoff point for salmon . . . on their upstream migration to their spawning beds.

Fresh Water
E. E. Pielou
University of Chicago Press, $24

The discharge of nutrients and pollutants into the sea in some coastal areas has led to the disappearance or near-disappearance of some species, an increasing frequency of phytoplankton blooms, and the growth of so-called dead zones where diminished oxygen supplies prevent the grown of marine life. The anoxic dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico lasts approximately eight months a year and can extend over 9,000 square kilometers.

The Ocean, Our Future
Mário Soares
Chair, Independent World Commision on the Oceans
Cambridge University Press, $22.95, paper

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Very little is known about this species, Phrynichthys wedli, a small anglerfish inhabiting the waters off the continental shelf on both sides of the Atlantic. No male specimens have ever been found. This juvenile was caught in the Caribbean by the slurp gun of a research submarine at 1,000 meters.

Encyclopedia of Fishes
John R. Paxton and William N. Eschmeyer, consulting eds.
Academic Press, $34.95


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African Penguins"Penguins are 10 times older than humans and have been here for a very, very long time," said Daniel Ksepka, Ph.D., a North Carolina State University research assistant professor. Dr. Ksepka researches the evolution of penguins and how they came to inhabit the African continent.

Because penguins have been around for over 60 million years, their fossil record is extensive. Fossils that Dr. Ksepka and his colleagues have discovered provide clues about migration patterns and the diversity of penguin species.

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