Great Observatories of the World, Martin Gardner's Mathematical Games and Nature Noir
Great Observatories of the World. Serge Brunier and
Anne-Marie Lagrange. Firefly Books, $59.95.
Future historians may look back on the giant telescopes of the 20th
and 21st centuries as the secular cathedrals of our
time—serving both as scientific tools and as spiritual
monuments in our quest to understand the universe. Typically located
on remote mountaintops, in secluded deserts or in outer space, these
grand constructions are in many cases little known even to people
who are otherwise scientifically literate. Indeed, even most
professional astronomers had never heard of the U.S. government's
highly classified Starfire Optical Range (pictured at right emitting
a green laser pulse) on the Kirkland Air Force Base in New Mexico
until its existence was acknowledged in 1991.
In Great Observatories of the World (a translation of a
2002 French publication, Les Grands Observatoires du Monde),
science writer Serge Brunier and astronomer Anne-Marie Lagrange
provide a remedy for our ignorance with a series of well-written
essays that describe 57 of the most significant observatories on the
Earth, in space and on the drawing boards for future construction.
The descriptions are accompanied by 200 photographs and
illustrations, plus a brief history of the telescope and informative
essays on topics such as adaptive optics, astronomy catalogs and
The authors must have had great fun doing the background research
for this book, and it shows in the liveliness of the writing and the
choice of superb images. My only quibble with this handsome volume
is the publisher's decision to produce the work in an oversized,
picture-book format. Measuring roughly 36 x 54 centimeters when
open, the book is simply too cumbersome to hold comfortably. The
bulk discourages any attempts to read more than a page or two at a
sitting, so the work will probably be relegated to the frivolous
existence of a coffee-table book. That's a pity, because Brunier and
Lagrange have produced a volume that deserves to be
Martin Gardner's Mathematical Games. CD-ROM
edition. The Mathe-matical Association of America, $54.95.
Martin Gardner is the author of more than 60 books, including works
of fiction, philosophy and literary criticism, but he is best known
for the "Mathematical Games" column that he presided over
in the pages of Scientific American for more than 25 years,
starting in the 1950s and going on into the 1980s. The columns were
republished in a series of 15 books, which are still available in
various editions. Now the 15 books have also been brought together
and reissued in a new format: a CD-ROM with the complete content
reproduced in PDF files. The disk is accompanied by a pamphlet with
appreciative essays by Donald J. Albers and Peter L. Renz.
By my count there are 311 columns. A few highlights: The article
that started it all was on hexaflexagons (folded from strips of
paper). When Gardner wrote about John Horton Conway's Game of Life,
it created such a stir that he had to write two sequels. Another
famous column introduced the world to public-key cryptography. One
big advantage of the digital edition is that the text can be
searched—revealing, for example, that Gardner mentions
Archimedes 48 times but Zeno only 39.
For Gardner fans who still prefer their books on paper, W. W. Norton
The Colossal Book of Short Puzzles and Problems
($35), a compendium of more than 250 problems extracted
from the columns and reorganized thematically by Dana Richards.
There are also a few new puzzles from the master.—Brian Hayes
Nature Noir: A Park Ranger's Patrol in the Sierra.
Jordan Fisher Smith. Houghton Mifflin, $24.
In Nature Noir, Jordan Fisher Smith relates his experiences
as a park ranger for 13 years on the American River in California's
Central Valley east of Sacramento. The river has been "a
condemned landscape" since Congress authorized the construction
of the Auburn Dam in 1965, threatening the valleys and canyons with
inundation. The land to be flooded had been desecrated by miners and
ranchers during and after the Gold Rush, but a series of setbacks
that have delayed construction of the dam have given nature time to
restore the habitat.
Smith describes this reclamation in exquisite detail. But what sets
the book apart is his adept intermingling of the area's natural
history with his experiences as a ranger. White-water rafters,
joggers and nature lovers use the river, but its remoteness and
wildness also make it a refuge for hermits, petty thieves, drug
dealers and worse—the "noir" of human
nature. We read of a cop who may have murdered his wife and buried
her in the dam construction area, of a woman who was killed and
eaten by a mountain lion and of crazies who jump off the Auburn Dam
bridge. The text juxtaposes the profane and the sacred, peace and
violence, sanity and madness, life and death. The concluding tragedy
is Smith's own, a diagnosis of chronic Lyme disease, which ended his
career as a ranger but gave him time to write a book about the river
he loves.—Roger Harris
"Penguins are 10 times older than humans and have been here for a very, very long time," said Daniel Ksepka, Ph.D., a North Carolina State University research assistant professor. Dr. Ksepka researches the evolution of penguins and how they came to inhabit the African continent.
Because penguins have been around for over 60 million years, their fossil record is extensive. Fossils that Dr. Ksepka and his colleagues have discovered provide clues about migration patterns and the diversity of penguin species.
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