Back in the High Life
Machu Picchu, Cuzco and Chan Chan are among the best known of ancient Andean cities. Yet there are hundreds of others, lesser known but as magnificent in their own way, say Adriana von Hagan and Craig Morris, authors of The Cities of the Ancient Andes (Thames and Hudson, $27.50). The authors describe ancient Andean urbanites as if they had lived among them: "Magically, a brightly dressed man appeared on the summit of temple, blowing a trumpet." Their accounts are reconstructed in part from such relics as the the gilded copper feline from the 3rd century (left) and a gold mummy mask, circa the10th. These were found in tombs on the north coast of Peru, in places called Sipán and Batán Grande, thousands of feet above sea level. The artifacts hightlight the quality of the region's metalwork—the cat's fangs, nose, eyes and ears are inlaid with stone and a rare, coral-rimmed shell. The cat also shows that the mountain-dwellers traded with coastal inhabitants: The inlaid shell, Spondylus, is found in Ecuador.
"Penguins are 10 times older than humans and have been here for a very, very long time," said Daniel Ksepka, Ph.D., a North Carolina State University research assistant professor. Dr. Ksepka researches the evolution of penguins and how they came to inhabit the African continent.
Because penguins have been around for over 60 million years, their fossil record is extensive. Fossils that Dr. Ksepka and his colleagues have discovered provide clues about migration patterns and the diversity of penguin species.
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